Nowadays, the large volumes of archaeological data from varios forms of terrain research and prospections are possible to effectively study and analyze through structured using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Archaeological data of primary terrain documentation, created using methods of photogrammetry and detailed measurements from a total station are processed into information system, which contains spatial and attribute information about all the documentable items and terrain features. The important advantage is compatibility of archeological data from extensive and countinously surveyed and excavated sites.
3D visualization of various features of digital terrain documentation (terrain research Pasohlávky "U vodárny" 2010-2011)
Example of digital archaeological terrain documentation in GIS based on perpendicular imagery and detailed total station survey (terrain research Pasohlávky "U vodárny" 2010-2011)
Geographic Information Systems are also important methodology tool for study of spatial and formal properties of the Germanic settlements of the Roman Period. Firstly, the GIS enable creation of databases, with can deal with large volumes of data, structured based on descriptive system. Such data can be used for analyses of settlement strategies of the Germanic populations and their approach and relation towards various natural resources. Significance of such implications can be evaluated through multidimensional statistics. Resulting data may provide essential input into processes of predictive modelling, which enable displacement of probability of archaeological evidence of any kind, based on nonrandom data structure in archaeological data.
Examples of input spatial GIS data layers
Digital elevation model and dislocation of the Germanic settlements complemented with Roman provinces Pannonia and Noricum in the Central Danube region
As well as in the case of Germanic settlement structure the GIS is highly suitable for formal analyses of various spatial relations and aspects of the Roman military impact (more>) into the Germanic territories of the Central Danube region, above all due to considerable spatial extent of problematics. Digital model of various parameters of physical environemnt based mostly on geomorphological and social variables may help in recognition of a structure within archaeological data. The important area of research dwells in more thorough understanding of forms and scale of impact of Roman military invasion into local settlement conditions, despite we are dealing with very limited period of time from archaeological persprective. There is also intention to compare acquired structures and regularities from the area of Central Danube region in other geographic conditions (e. g. provinces Dacia, Britania, Hispania). Such data may also help in search for so far uncovered Roman military objects in the region.